You can’t start with imbalance and end with peace, be that in your own body, in an ecosystem or between a government and its people. What we need to strive for is not perfection, but balance.”

Ani DiFranco, Musician

What Is Ecology?

Ecology can be defined as a branch of biology that examines the interaction of organisms and their natural biophysical environment.

This biophysical environment can be either biotic or abiotic.

The field of ecology includes life processes, adaptions, interactions as well as the movement of energy and materials through living communities.

Ecology is quite important for explaining and also for the mitigation of many environmental problems.

In the following, several kinds of questions regarding ecology are answered.

Moreover, the causes, effects and solutions for ecological problems are examined.

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Biotic and Abiotic Factors

While biotic factors are living organisms, abiotic factors are non-living factors of an ecosystem.

Examples for biotic factors include animals, birds and plants.

Abiotic factors include air, soil or the sunlight.

What are the different Types of Ecology?

  1. Molecular ecology
  2. Ecosystem ecology
  3. Organismal ecology
  4. Landscape ecology
  5. Community ecology
  6. Population ecology
  7. Global ecology

Molecular ecology

Molecular ecology can be defined as an area of evolutionary biology which examines the dynamics of ecology on a molecular level.

Molecular ecology tries to answer several genetic-based questions regarding ecological evolution.

Ecosystem ecology

Ecosystem ecology can be regarded as a field of study related to biotic and abiotic components and their interactions within an ecosystem framework.

This field of ecological study examines how ecosystems and their different components work and interact.

Organismal ecology

Organismal ecology tries to study how individual organisms interact and respond to changing environmental factors and environmental challenges.

Landscape ecology

Landscape ecology studies the relationships between particular ecosystems and ecological processes in the environment.

Key topics of landscape ecology include land use and land cover change and ecological flows in landscape mosaics.

Community ecology

Community ecology examines the interaction of two or more populations living in the same geographical area.

It also examines how interactions of living organisms can change the community structure over time.

Population ecology

The field of population ecology examines the genetic variety and size of a population and factors that can change the population characteristics.

Global ecology

Global ecology can be regarded as the most high-level type of ecology.

It examines the interaction of the planet’s atmosphere, ecosystems, land, air and oceans.

What is the Difference between Ecology and Environment?

While ecology is focused on the interactions of organisms with their surroundings and with each other, environment can be regarded as a broader term.

Environment can thus be seen as a dwelling place for organisms while ecology is more community-based and focuses on the relationships and interactions of populations.

What is the Ecological Footprint?

The ecological footprint measures the human impact on our planet’s ecosystem.

It is an indicator of the dependence of humans on natural resources.

The ecological footprint is quite an important measure for the sustainability assessment of human behavior.

By using the ecological footprint, we can determine how sustainable human behavior is for our planet and in which directions we have to adjust our behavior in order to become more sustainable to ensure the future of humanity.

What is the Ecology Pyramid?

The ecological pyramid describes biomass productivity in a given ecosystem at each trophic level.

In the ecological pyramid, primary producers like plants are located at the bottom of the pyramid, while predators are at the top of the pyramid.

The ecology pyramid starts when primary producers get energy from the sun.

Part of this energy is then transferred as biomass to the next trophic level.

It is estimated that in healthy ecosystems, around 10% of the energy is transferred to the next trophic level.

What are the Stages of Ecological Succession?

  1. Primary succession
  2. Secondary succession
  3. Intermediate stages of succession
  4. Climax communities

Primary succession

Primary succession describes the stage in the ecological succession where organisms colonize an area that has previously hit by a natural disaster that wiped out all life in this area.

In such areas, the first organisms which colonize the land usually are fungi and algae, followed by simple plants like mosses.

Eventually, as time goes by, a layer of soil is formed which can be used by advanced plant species since there now a space to locate roots and extract nutrients out of the soil.

In the next step, animals, birds and insects usually colonize these areas as there is now enough food supply through plants.

Secondary succession

In contrast to primary succession, secondary succession does not refer to an initial state where all life had been wiped out, it rather describes the changes and evolvement of populations over time in specific areas.

Secondary succession occurs every day and can be regarded as gradual movement to the climax community state.

Intermediate stages of succession

In the ecological evolution process, there are many intermediate states of succession.

Depending on the ecological system, the transition from primary succession to climax communities can be quite short or also can take a quite long time, depending on the circumstances and sources of disturbance.

Climax communities

Climax communities can be regarded as the final step of succession.

In this state, the ecosystem usually remains quite stable and unchanged.

The biggest threat to climax communities usually are natural disasters like wildfires or other events that have a huge ecological impact.

Why is Ecology important?

  1. Ecology raises the awareness of people
  2. New research insights
  3. Protection of species
  4. Human survival
  5. Environmental conservation
  6. Avoid the spread of diseases
  7. Protection of our climate
  8. Predicting the future
  9. Efficient resource distribution

Ecology raises the awareness of people

The science of ecology is important since it raises the awareness of people on our ecological problems and how to solve them.

Through understanding the relationships between organisms which can often be quite complex, it is easier to find effective measures in order to mitigate certain problems.

New research insights

Ecology often also comes up with new research insights which in turn can be used to improve policy decisions and to mitigate certain ecological problems.

Protection of species

With the help of ecological insights, it can be determined which species are at risk to become endangered or extinct and suitable measures regarding the protection of these species can be taken.

Human survival

Since our ecological systems are quite complex and interdependent, the survival of the human species depends heavily on the understanding of ecology and how the different organisms on our planet work together.

Environmental conservation

A big environmental problem is the destruction of habitats of many animals and plants due to mining, deforestation or other actions caused by human interventions.

Ecology can determine what level of human intervention can be tolerated and how much interaction is “too much”.

Avoid the spread of diseases

With the help of ecology, we can also examine how diseases are spread and under which ecological conditions the likelihood of the spread of diseases increases.

Therefore, whenever such conditions appear, people can be warned and made aware to take protective measures.

Protection of our climate

Since ecology examines the interactions of different organisms, it can also study how climate change affects ecosystems.

Thus, ecology can help to understand the adverse effects of global warming and can also give indications on how to mitigate the climate change issue.

Predicting the future

Since there is plenty of data on ecological processes in the past, researchers can try to predict future ecological development.

Therefore, they may be able to spot potential dangers to humanity in time so that we are able to fight those dangers efficiently.

Efficient resource distribution

Ecology can also help to answer questions regarding the optimal resource distribution and allocation.

In many regions worldwide, there may be a lack of resources that prevents local development.

Therefore, supplying natural resources to these countries may support them in reaching their development goals.

Causes for Ecological Problems

  1. Draughts
  2. Earthquakes
  3. Tornadoes
  4. Heavy rainfalls and floods
  5. Mining
  6. Destruction of natural habitats
  7. Illegal dumping
  8. Littering
  9. Emission of greenhouse gases
  10. Excessive consumption
  11. Excessive waste


Draughts can lead to serious ecological problems since they can change the dynamics of an ecological system.

For example, draughts can lead to the death of many animals and plants which in turn affects several other organisms.

This can lead to a point where the ecological balance is lost and new equilibrium states can occur.


Earthquakes can also wipe out animals and plant species on a large scale and therefore change the affected ecological systems in an adverse manner.

Moreover, earthquakes can also lead to the spread of diseases due to unhygienic conditions and therefore may further alter the ecological systems.


Tornadoes can lead to a temporary change in the structure of an ecological system.

Tornadoes may destroy buildings and also may lead to the destruction of forests.

This forest destruction in turn hurts many animals which now have to relocate to new habitats.

In turn, this could lead to an imbalance in the ecosystem and may hurt biodiversity.

Heavy rainfalls and floods

Rainfalls and floods can also hurt ecosystems since many animals and plants are likely to drown.

Moreover, a mass of dead animals can also lead to a spread of diseases or even to a spread of epidemics or pandemics.


Due to our increasing world population and our rising consumption levels, we have to extract an increasing amount of resources out of the ground.

However, the extraction process through mining can hurt ecological systems since mining often involves soil pollution and also destroys natural habitats of animals which then have to find new habitats to relocate in order to survive.

Destruction of natural habitats

Human interventions lead to the destruction of many habitats worldwide.

This is especially true when it comes to deforestation.

Large areas of forest are cut down on a daily basis.

In the Amazon Rainforest, it is quite common to intentionally burn down forests in order to get more space for farming purposes.

However, this behavior is quite harmful to local ecosystems since it destroys the habitat of a huge variety of species.

Illegal dumping

Illegal dumping is a big problem for ecosystems, especially in poor developing countries.

Industries often dump their trash into nearby rivers and lakes, which leads to several kinds of pollution and therefore hurts many animals and plants which are living in those ecosystems.


Littering can also be a serious problem for our ecosystems.

A prominent example of littering is the disposal of used cigarettes into nature.

Many wildfires are started each year due to incorrect disposal of cigarettes in forests.

In these cases, the effects of littering on the respective ecosystems are dramatic.

Emission of greenhouse gases

The emission of greenhouse gases can have severe adverse effects on ecological systems since greenhouse gases contribute to global warming.

Global warming in turn leads to several kinds of ecological problems and many animals and plants will lose their natural habitats due to the effects of climate change.

Excessive consumption

Our consumption levels skyrocketed during the last decades since our average income increased and the prices for goods dropped compared to our wealth levels.

Therefore, people consume large amounts of material things.

However, this consumption behavior has severe adverse effects on our ecosystems, since it implies issues like resource depletion and all kinds of pollution.

Excessive waste

The production of excessive waste is another serious ecological problem.

Since our consumption levels are quite high, this also implies large amounts of waste produced each day.

We have to get rid of this waste somehow.

This is often done through the combustion of waste.

However, in the combustion process, harmful substances are emitted into the air, which in the long run can hurt many ecosystems and related animals and plants on a global scale.

Effects of Ecological Problems

  1. Endangerment of species
  2. Loss of livelihood for many people
  3. Water pollution
  4. Air pollution
  5. Soil pollution
  6. Resource depletion
  7. Global warming
  8. Biodiversity loss

Endangerment of species

Some of our ecological problems can lead to the endangerment or even extinction of species.

Some species only occur in a few parts of our environmental system.

If these areas are destroyed due to natural disasters or due to human interventions, these species will be lost forever.

Loss of livelihood for many people

Through ecological problems like greenhouse gas emissions and the resulting effects of global warming, many people will lose their livelihood.

This may be due to the fact that global warming will exacerbate the problem of water scarcity.

Thus, many farmers will no longer be able to tilt their fields or to raise cattle since they will simply not have enough water for these purposes.

Moreover, many islands will be flooded due to a rise in sea levels.

This will also destroy the livelihood of many people and will also lead to migration movements of the affected people.

Water pollution

Due to illegal dumping, significant levels of water pollution can occur.

For example, in many developing countries, industrial waste is often just disposed of into nearby lakes or rivers, which leads to significant water pollution.

Air pollution

Significant amounts of air pollution can occur due to industrial manufacturing processes and also due to the daily use of motor vehicles.

Air pollution contributes to the global warming issue and may also hurt ecological systems since animals are usually quite sensitive to their natural living conditions.

If there is too much air pollution, animal populations may decline due to diseases related to air pollution.

Soil pollution

Due to natural causes like earthquakes or also through human intervention, the soil in many ecosystems can become polluted which hurts the local flora and fauna and can lead to further ecological problems since ecosystems are quite complex and interactional.

Resource depletion

Man-made ecological problems can also lead to the depletion of natural resources.

Due to the growing world population, also the demand for material goods increases. These goods have to be constructed out of natural resources.

However, many of these natural resources like metal are non-renewable and may become depleted in the future if we do not reduce our consumption levels.

Global warming

Ecological problems like the emission of harmful greenhouse gases contribute to the global warming issue.

Global warming in turn will lead to a massive decline in biodiversity and will also hurt many people who will have to migrate in order to find a new home.

Biodiversity loss

Biodiversity loss may be caused by many ecological problems, either by natural causes like earthquakes or also through human interventions in ecological systems.

In the last decades, we have already lost a significant amount of species.

The problem of biodiversity loss is likely to increase in the future due to many ecological problems our planet currently faces.

Solutions for Ecological Problems

  1. Conservation areas
  2. Restore ecological systems
  3. Government regulations
  4. High fines for littering and illegal dumping
  5. Stop deforestation
  6. Reduce consumption
  7. Reduce waste
  8. Reuse and recycle
  9. Education

Conservation areas

One measure to protect our ecological systems is to install conservation areas where animals and plant populations can recover and live in peace with nature and are safe from harmful human interventions.

Conservation areas may therefore help to reestablish the balance of ecosystems.

Restore ecological systems

Many ecological systems had been suffering from human interventions in the past.

These ecosystems should be restored in order to preserve endangered species and to give them a habitat where they can restore their populations.

Government regulations

There should be quite strict government regulations regarding the use of natural habitats for human purposes.

It should be more difficult for profit-maximizing firms to use untouched nature for their purposes which often involves significant amounts of pollution.

Governments should set a framework in which the protection of ecological systems is regarded as more important than the goal of profit maximization of firms.

High fines for littering and illegal dumping

Illegal dumping and littering can impose severe damage to our ecosystems.

Therefore, in order to reduce the incentive for those harmful actions, fines and control mechanisms regarding those actions should be increased significantly.

Stop deforestation

Our forests are crucial for human survival since they are storage spaces for many harmful gases and also provide plenty of oxygen.

They are also a natural habitat for a variety of animals and other organisms.

Thus, in order to mitigate a variety of ecological problems, we have to stop or at least reduce the level of deforestation.

Reduce consumption

Our consumption behavior is a big problem for our ecological systems.

We have to be aware that all goods we consume are made out of natural resources.

Excessive consumption can therefore lead to resource depletion and will also lead to the destruction of many natural habitats.

Therefore, it is crucial to reduce our consumption behavior in order to protect our ecosystems.

Reduce waste

Large amounts of waste are produced every day.

In order to get rid of this waste, a significant fraction of it is burned which leads to all sorts of ecological problems.

Moreover, another part of the waste is dumped into landfills, where toxic chemicals may lead to massive soil pollution.

In order to mitigate the adverse effects on our ecological systems, we should try to reduce waste production whenever possible in our daily life.

Reuse and recycle

Reusing and recycling material things is crucial in order to mitigate several ecological issues.

When you have old things that you do no longer use but that are still working, ask your family or friends if they need those items.

If not, at least make sure that you dispose of these items appropriately in order to enable effective recycling.


We have to educate our children about the adverse effects of human interventions on our ecological systems.

By doing so, when these children turn into grownups, they are likely to behave in an ecologically-friendly manner.

Moreover, children are often able to convince their parents which may also behave more environmentally-friendly.


Our ecological systems are quite important since they are the basis for the development of all life on earth.

Our planet currently faces many ecological problems, many of them made by human behavior.

Therefore, in order to mitigate these problems, everyone of us can contribute his or her part through easy measures in our daily life.

By doing so, we can make our contribution to mitigating ecological problems and therefore to ensure a livable future for the next generations.


About the author

My name is Andreas and my mission is to educate people of all ages about our environmental problems and how everyone can make a contribution to mitigate these issues.

As I went to university and got my Master’s degree in Economics, I did plenty of research in the field of Development Economics.

After finishing university, I traveled around the world. From this time on, I wanted to make a contribution to ensure a livable future for the next generations in every part of our beautiful planet.

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