It was the Law of the Sea, they said. Civilization ends at the waterline. Beyond that, we all enter the food chain, and not always right at the top.”

Hunter S. Thompson, Journalist

Food Chain Disruptions: Causes, Effects & Solutions

causes, effects, solutions regarding disruptions in the food chain

A food chain can be defined as a network of links with a hierarchic structure.

It usually starts with small prey animals or producer organisms like wood or grass and ends with predator species like bears.

The food chain can also end one step further with decomposers like bacteria or worms which would process the predator species once it dies, depending on the definition.

The proper functioning of the food chain is crucial for healthy development of species on our planet.

However, there are several reasons why a food chain may become disrupted.

In this article, the causes, effects and solutions for a disruption in the food chain are examined.

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Causes for the Disruption of Food Chains

  1. Global warming
  2. Water pollution
  3. Soil pollution
  4. Air pollution
  5. Hunting
  6. Acid rain
  7. Deforestation
  8. Illegal dumping
  9. Littering
  10. Mining
  11. Overpopulation
  12. Natural disasters

Global warming

One major cause of disruptions in the food chain may be global warming.

Many species are quite sensitive to changes in their natural living conditions.

If air or water temperature increases, these species may decrease in numbers.

This in turn means that predators of these species will suffer from a significant decrease in food.

This circle continues and can affect a huge variety of animal and plant species in the long run, which may lead to the disruption of the food chain.

Water pollution

Aquatic animals and plants usually require certain conditions in order to be able to reproduce and survive.

This could include a certain acidity level, but also a certain level of oxygen and minerals.

If those parameters change due to water pollution, chances are that many aquatic species may not be able to adapt to the new conditions properly, which may lead to a decrease in population for those species.

Depending on the level of pollution, this may lead to serious disruptions in the food chain.

Soil pollution

Soil pollution can be caused by a variety of human interventions, including agricultural processes or mining activities.

When the soil gets polluted, many plants as well as microorganisms may suffer from a significant change in natural living conditions, which may lead to a drop in populations for those species.

In turn, other animals that rely on those plants as a food source may also suffer from a decrease in population.

This circle continues and can result in a significant disruption of whole food chains.

Air pollution

For species that are sensitive to air quality, excessive levels of air pollution can also cause a disruption in the food chain.

For instance, some insects need clean air in order to feel comfortable and to reproduce.

If the living conditions of those insects become altered in a negative manner, they may lose their ability to reproduce, which may lead to a significant disruption of ecosystems.


Illegal hunting is still a big problem in some parts of our planet.

Animals like elephants are often killed solely for their precious ivory tasks.

However, this kind of illegal hunting can lead to a vast decline in numbers for those animals, eventually leading to the endangerment or extinction of certain species.

Thus, hunting can also contribute to a disruption in the food chain to a certain extent.

Acid rain

Acid rain alters the living conditions of a huge variety of species since it hits the ground on a global scale.

Animals and plants that are quite sensitive to acidity levels may significantly suffer from changes in their natural living conditions.

For instance, plants are often quite sensitive to the level of acidity.

If acidity levels increase, some plants may be adversely affected in their growth behavior and may also produce lower crop yields, which may in turn hurt many other animals and also us humans since we are heavily dependent on crop yields in order to be able to provide enough food for our global population.


Deforestation is a serious global issue.

Especially in our tropical rainforests, large areas of land are cut or burned down in order to get more space for farming since it is usually more lucrative for farmers compared to selling wood.

However, this kind of deforestation also implies the destruction of habitats for myriads of animals and plants, which can lead to several environmental issues, including the disruption of food chains.

Illegal dumping

Illegal dumping may lead to serious levels of pollution, especially in countries where there are only low fines for illegal dumping and also low levels of control mechanisms.

Illegal dumping may lead to water and soil pollution, which in turn may hurt a variety of animals and plants and may eventually lead to a disruption in the food chain.


Closely related to the illegal dumping issue is the problem of littering.

Many people just dispose of their garbage in nature and seem not to care about the adverse consequences for our environment at all.

Depending on the extent of littering, this could negatively impact a variety of animals and plants, which may lead to a decrease in population for those species.


For mining purposes, large areas of land have to be used, which implies significant destruction of habitats for many animals and plants.

In turn, animals have to find a new habitat and have to migrate to other areas.

However, plants cannot move to other areas, which may lead to a vast reduction of those plant species in the affected area.

In turn, if this reduction is severe enough, it may lead to a disruption in the food chain in the local ecosystem.


The number of people on our planet increased dramatically over the past decades.

However, with the increasing number of people, also the level of pollution and waste production increased significantly.

Moreover, humans have to expand their territory since they need more space for housing and farming.

All this leads to the destruction of habitats for many animal and plant species, which in turn could result in a significant disruption of the local food chain.

Natural disasters

Apart from man-made sources regarding disruptions in the food chain, there are also natural causes for a decline in populations of species.

For instance, natural disasters like tsunamis can wipe out or greatly reduce the number of certain species, which may affect whole ecosystems and may significantly disrupt a variety of food chains.

Effects of Food Chain Disruption

  1. Endangerment and extinction of species
  2. Fragmentation of ecosystems
  3. Imbalance of natural environments
  4. Migration of animals
  5. Loss of biodiversity
  6. Loss of food sources
  7. Conflicts

Endangerment and extinction of species

A disruption in the food chain usually also implies that many animals and plants may become endangered or even extinct.

This is quite logical since if prey animals decrease in population, predators will also suffer since their food sources decrease.

Depending on the severity of the decrease in population due to disruptions in the food chain, whole ecosystems may significantly suffer from this development.

Fragmentation of ecosystems

Ecosystems usually work as a complex unit with several dependences of species on one another.

Thus, if there are disruptions in the food chain and some species decline in population while others increase, ecosystems may become quite fragmented and may lose their natural equilibrium state.

Imbalance of natural environments

Disruptions in the food chain may also result in an imbalance in the natural environment of a variety of animals and plants.

Depending on the conditions of an ecosystem, there is a certain natural number of every species so that the ecosystem is in a harmonic state.

However, through disruptions in the food chain, the conditions in the ecosystem may change and there may be a significant shift in population of certain species, which in turn may result in the degradation of whole environments.

Migration of animals

Due to disruptions in the food chain, many predator animals will be forced to leave their natural habitats since they do no longer find sufficient prey animals to ensure their food supply.

If these predators do not find new habitats to relocate, they may vastly decrease in population.

Depending on the severity of the decrease in prey animals, these predators may even become endangered or even extinct.

Loss of biodiversity

Food chain disruptions may also contribute to a significant biodiversity loss.

If an ecosystem gets out of balance due to disruptions in the food chain, some species will decrease in population while others will increase.

If the increase of some species is too strong, those species are likely to dominate whole ecosystems, which in turn may lead to a significant loss in biodiversity since other species may no longer be able to sustain their population.

Loss of food sources

A disruption in the food chain is not only quite harmful to the local flora and fauna, but may also hurt us humans significantly.

For instance, if our plants may suffer due to disruptions in the food chain and ecosystem imbalance, humanity as a whole may suffer from high levels of starvation due to insufficient crop yields.

A good example of this is locust infestations. Locusts can destroy the yield of farmers within just a few days, which may result in severe levels of hunger for the local population.


Disruptions in the food chain, if they are severe enough to also impact humans, may also contribute to conflicts.

If people suffer from hunger, they are usually in a quite bad mood and are also desperate since they may struggle to provide for their families.

In turn, social tensions are likely to increase and even small disputes may result in severe conflicts.

Solutions for Disruptions in the Food Chain

  1. Protection of our species
  2. Change in consumption behavior
  3. Avoid waste production
  4. Fight global warming
  5. Global population control
  6. Mitigate pollution of all sorts
  7. Global collaboration
  8. Extensive research on food chain dynamics
  9. Education
  10. Convince others

Protection of our species

In order to prevent large disruptions in the food chain, we have to protect our animals and plants so that their populations remain stable.

For instance, this means to fight illegal hunting practices through better controls and higher fines.

It also means the protection of habitats, especially for animals or plants that are already endangered in order to prevent the extinction of these species.

Change in consumption behavior

As a global society, we should also strive to adjust our consumption behavior in an eco-friendly manner in order to avoid disruptions in the food chain through the excessive extraction of resources and the destruction of habitats.

This means reducing our consumption of material goods whenever this consumption implies a negative impact on our environment.

Instead of buying new things, try to use your old but still working things for a longer period of time.

Moreover, give your used items to family and friends for free.

If no one wants to use your old stuff, at least make sure to separate your waste properly in order to make them suitable for recycling purposes.

Avoid waste production

In general, we should also reduce our waste production since our waste has to be either burned or disposed into landfills.

The burning of waste leads to significant air pollution and also contributes to global warming, which in turn can disrupt our food chains.

Moreover, the disposal of waste into landfills can lead to soil pollution, which may also disrupt local food chains and ecosystems.

Therefore, we should avoid waste production in our daily life whenever possible.

Fight global warming

Since global warming is a significant cause of the disruption of food chains, it is crucial that we fight it on a global scale.

This implies a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and also a sustainable consumption behavior.

By fighting global warming on an individual basis, everyone of us can make his or her contribution to the protection of our species.

Global population control

Since an increasing number in our world population also implies an increasing demand for material things, it is crucial that we limit the number of people on our planet in order to be sustainable as humanity and to avoid disruptions in the food chain in the long run.

This could mean that we introduce a limit for children so that our global population decreases slowly in a natural way.

However, this approach has to be accepted by many countries worldwide in order to make a significant impact, which may turn out to be quite difficult in reality.

Mitigate pollution of all sorts

Industries and also private persons should reduce their overall level of pollution.

Only then will it be possible to reduce our overall level of pollution to a level that is sustainable in the long run.

By doing so, we can protect many animal and plant species from extinction and can therefore avoid significant disruptions in the food chain.

Global collaboration

Governments around the world have to work together in order to reduce the problem of food chain disruption.

Due to negative externalities, every country has the incentive to produce more waste and to excessively pollute our environment since it only takes into account its private costs, not the global social costs of pollution.

Thus, it is necessary to set up global regulations with the aim to reduce pollution and waste and therefore to protect our animal and plant species from extinction.

Extensive research on food chain dynamics

In order to protect our species and to avoid large distractions in the food chain, there should be extensive research on the topic of dynamics regarding our food chains.

Only then will it be possible to introduce effective measures in order to fight disruptions in the food chain in a proper manner.


It is also crucial to educate our general public as well as our children in school about the importance of an intact food chain.

Many people are still not even aware of what a significant disruption of food chains would really mean for our planet as well as for humanity.

By raising the awareness on this topic, the general public may become more aware of the problem and is likely to behave more eco-friendly due to that.

Convince others

You should also try to convince your family and friends about the importance of saving our species from endangerment and extinction in order to guarantee intact food chains.

By doing so, you can multiply your positive environmental impact since your family and friends are also more likely to behave greener in their daily life.


Disruptions in the food chain may result in serious environmental problems.

In order to mitigate those issues, we have to fight food chain disruptions on a global scale.

Only then will it be possible to make our behavior sustainable and to ensure a livable future for the next generations.


About the author

My name is Andreas and my mission is to educate people of all ages about our environmental problems and how everyone can make a contribution to mitigate these issues.

As I went to university and got my Master’s degree in Economics, I did plenty of research in the field of Development Economics.

After finishing university, I traveled around the world. From this time on, I wanted to make a contribution to ensure a livable future for the next generations in every part of our beautiful planet.

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