“Places that have become agricultural deserts, trashed by giant corporations, could be reforested, drawing carbon dioxide from the air on a vast scale. The ecosystems of land and sea could recover, not just in pockets but across great tracts of the planet.”

George Monbiot, Writer

Pros and Cons of Reforestation & Afforestation

advantages and problems of reforestation and afforestation

Afforestation and reforestation both refer to the planting of trees in order to compensate for the forest losses related to deforestation.

Although it is crucial that we maintain enough trees on our planet, there are also some problems related to those techniques.

In this article, the pros and cons of reforestation and afforestation are examined in detail.

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What is the Difference between Afforestation & Reforestation?

While afforestation refers to the planting of trees where there haven’t been any trees before, reforestation means to restock forests that have previously got depleted.

Both are quite important to sustain and maintain a sufficient number of trees on our planet in order to assure the preservation of the global ecological balance.

Advantages of Reforestation & Afforestation

  1. We can slow down global warming
  2. Trees reduce the risks for landslides
  3. Prevention of desertification
  4. Natural habitat for many animals and other organisms
  5. Conservation area for endangered species
  6. Shade trees for convenience
  7. Leisure activities
  8. Can lead to social cohesion
  9. Planting trees can be fun
  10. Good to educate your kids
  11. Assurance of wood supply
  12. Employment opportunities
  13. Planting trees can be a serious business
  14. Improvements in air quality
  15. Forests are important to maintain the ecological balance
  16. Forests can increase the overall quality of life for people
  17. Trees can help to store the rainwater
  18. Ecotourism as source of income

We can slow down global warming

One important advantage of reforestation is that we can slow down global warming.

Since trees are natural carbon dioxide storage spaces, they can prevent large amounts of carbon to enter our atmosphere.

Hence, a sufficient number of trees on our planet is crucial in order to mitigate global warming and the horrible adverse effects related to it.

Trees reduce the risks for landslides

Landslides can be a significant problem, especially for people who live in regions where the soil is relatively unstable.

In such regions, due to heavy rain, the soil will become so unstable that it will eventually collapse.

Nearby houses will often get destroyed and if the inhabitants of those houses do not really what’s happening in time, chances are that they get buried alive.

However, by planting trees, we can avoid landslides to a certain extent since the roots of trees are able to stabilize the soil and landslides become much more unlikely.

Therefore, afforestation can also save many lives, especially in areas that suffer from a high risk for landslides.

Prevention of desertification

Another upside of afforestation is that it can prevent the desertification of large areas of land.

If an area of land is not used for farming or for other purposes, chances are that it will look like a desert sooner or later, especially in hot and dry climate zones on our planet.

However, we as humanity cannot afford the desertification of those areas of land since our world population is growing and we need to use our land efficiently in order to be able to feed as many people as possible.

Thus, in order to prevent desertification and the related adverse effects, planting trees is a good option since trees will sustain a certain level of water in the ground and they also provide a certain level of shade.

Natural habitat for many animals and other organisms

Forests are also a natural habitat for many animals, plants and other organisms.

It is therefore crucial that we sustain those environments.

If large forest areas have been cut or burned down, we should use reforestation in order to restore those natural habitats so that animals and plants can relocate in order to maintain the natural balance between the local flora and fauna and us humans.

Conservation area for endangered species

Reforestation can also assure the protection of endangered species in many areas of our planet.

Many animals and plants that are currently on the endangered species list are only on that list since we have destroyed their natural habitats.

Thus, it should also be our responsibility to restore what we destroyed and be planting enough trees, we can give those animals and plants a new home so that they can start to grow their population again.

Only then will it be possible for us to assure a large variety of different animals and plants which we can show to our children.

Shade trees for convenience

Trees are not only useful when it comes to forests, they can also be great on hot summer days where they can provide shade.

For example, by planting trees in parks, we can provide natural shade for visitors who want to rest on a bench and enjoy the nice summer day but do not want to be exposed to the sun too much due to various health reasons.

Hence, afforestation in cities can also provide nice opportunities for shade trees in order to improve the overall quality of life for people who want to go for a walk in parks.

Leisure activities

Forests also provide us with plenty of leisure opportunities.

For instance, jogging or running in a forest is usually much more fun compared to running right next to a big street where you have to suffer from noise and air pollution from nearby cars.

Moreover, you could also collect berries or mushrooms in the forest, which can be plenty of fun, especially if you have kids.

Therefore, our forests provide us with numerous leisure activities and we should take efforts to maintain or even extend those forest areas through afforestation or reforestation.

Can lead to social cohesion

Engaging in reforestation projects can also lead to social cohesion among the local population.

By planting trees, everyone can contribute his or her part to make our planet a little bit more livable and to assure a good future for the next generations.

Consequently, people will often be quite motivated to work hard in order to plant as many trees as possible since they realize the important purpose behind it.

In turn, people will be willing to work together for this big goal, which in turn will also strengthen the social cohesion since people will spend plenty of time together in the process of afforestation.

Planting trees can be fun

Although it can be physically exhausting to plant trees, it can also be quite much fun.

Especially if you live in a big city and do not have too many connection points to nature, chances are that you will really enjoy planting a tree since it is something you never did before.

You should realize that our ancestors lived in line with nature for many thousands of years and our genetics evolved according to that.

Thus, a certain level of nature activities may also be quite beneficial for your mental health since we all have an inner connection with nature and planting a tree is definitely a part of those valuable natural experiences.

Good to educate your kids

Reforestation projects are also quite nice if you have kids. In many cases, our youth loses the connection to nature, especially you live in big cities instead of in rural areas.

In this case, joining a reforestation project can be a nice activity since you can teach your kids about the importance of our forests and why we have to protect them.

By doing so, your kids will learn about nature conservation and will also be more likely to live eco-friendly once they turn into grownups.

Assurance of wood supply

Our forests are also crucial to provide us with sufficient amounts of wood.

Wood is a precious natural material that can be used for a variety of different purposes.

For instance, we use wooden trees, wooden flooring or wooden cupboards quite often in our daily life.

Moreover, also the charcoal for your barbecue comes from wood as a raw material.

Therefore, in order to assure our supply with this important material in the long run, it is crucial that we engage in reforestation or afforestation.

Employment opportunities

Reforestation projects also provide plenty of employment opportunities for the local population.

For big projects, a high number of people are needed to carry out the exhausting manual work.

In turn, this can lower unemployment rates of the local population and provide them with a higher average income.

Thus, especially in areas where unemployment is a big problem, afforestation projects can not only improve our ecological footprint, but also provide job opportunities so that fewer people have to suffer from poverty.

Planting trees can be a serious business

Some locals may even be able to make their own business out of reforestation projects for instance, by planting high numbers of trees, they could produce timber or charcoal and sell it to local stores.

Therefore, reforestation may also provide the opportunity for locals to start their own business and therefore to significantly improve their overall living conditions.

Improvements in air quality

It has been shown by many studies that the air quality inside forests is much better compared to the air quality in cities.

This is quite logical since all the harmful emissions that are present in cities are missing in forests.

Therefore, forests also provide us with an opportunity to breathe fresh air, which may be quite beneficial for our health.

Consequently, through reforestation, we can provide more of those fresh air conservation areas, which could in turn improve our overall health levels.

Forests are important to maintain the ecological balance

Forests have existed for many millions of years and are therefore a crucial part of our natural environment.

Without forests, our planet would suffer from a significant ecological imbalance and the consequences would be quite unpleasant.

Hence, it is crucial that we conserve our forests as much as possible.

This also includes the reforestation or afforestation whenever it makes sense in the respective region.

Forests can increase the overall quality of life for people

Due to the improvements in air quality and the provision of natural spaces for leisure activities, forests are also quite important to improve the overall quality of life of people.

Especially if you live in a big city and have a quite stressful job where you work long hours, you might really enjoy going for a walk in the nearby forest in order to mentally regenerate and get back your mental power for the next exhausting project.

Trees can help to store the rainwater

Trees are not only natural storage spaces for carbon dioxide, they also store large amounts of rainwater.

Therefore, especially in regions that suffer from water scarcity, forests are crucial in order to maintain a certain minimum level of groundwater which the local population can use as drinking water in order to survive.

Since water scarcity will become an even bigger problem in the future due to global warming, it is crucial that we tackle this issue through reforestation or afforestation.

Ecotourism as source of income

Through reforestation, the chances for ecotourism also increase.

Many people have become aware of how important it is to protect our environment.

This is also true in the area of traveling.

An increasing number of people want to spend their vacation so that they minimize their adverse negative effects on our planet.

Some people may even want to help in reforestation projects, which not only helps with the planting of trees but also provides locals with an additional income source since those tourists have to sleep and eat somewhere.

Therefore, ecotourism can not only help to plant trees, but can also improve the financial situation of many locals in poor parts of our planet.

Disadvantages of Afforestation & Reforestation

  1. Decrease in the value of land for the owner
  2. Less space for housing
  3. Less space for farming
  4. Local poverty may increase
  5. Wildfires
  6. Litter in forests
  7. Less space for other crucial public infrastructure
  8. Planting trees may be costly
  9. Pests may be a problem
  10. Scarcity may increase property prices and rents for the general public
  11. Forests require proper maintenance
  12. Also ecotourism causes some problems

Decrease in the value of land for the owner

As we have seen before, there are numerous important benefits from afforestation and reforestation.

However, those activities also imply some issues.

One problem of afforestation is that it can vastly decrease the value of land for the respective owner.

For instance, imagine you own a piece of land that was formerly meant for housing purposes.

Now, the local municipality decides that your piece of land should be used for reforestation instead.

The value of your property will decrease significantly due to that and this can be considered as unfair for property owners.

Therefore, there is also a certain level of conflict associated with land use and reforestation projects may not favor certain landowners at all.

Less space for housing

Due to large afforestation projects, there will also be less space for housing.

Especially in areas where space is rather confined, big reforestation projects may even prevent large construction projects that would have been meant to provide more housing space for the local population.

Thus, in some areas, reforestation may also exacerbate the housing crisis, which may lead to a higher level of homelessness in the respective region.

Less space for farming

If there is a higher fraction of land that is used for forests, a lower fraction of land is left for farming purposes.

In turn, farmers will produce lower crop yields.

This can cause significant problems, especially in poor parts of our planet where people rely on those farmers in order to assure their food supply.

Thus, afforestation can even lead to a state where the local population might suffer from serious starvation due to a lack of farming space.

Local poverty may increase

Some farmers may also suffer from a decrease in profits due to reforestation activities.

If they can only use a smaller piece of land for farming, they will also produce fewer crops and the risk for poverty among the local population might increase since food prices tend to increase if the supply of crops is limited.


With a larger area of forests, also the chances for wildfires increase significantly.

Especially for people who live close to those forests, this may be a great problem since those fires may destroy their houses and their livelihood.

Moreover, even people who live many miles away from those forest fires may suffer since the air quality in those regions may decrease significantly.

Litter in forests

Even though forests are meant to be a natural regeneration space, many people do not care about our nature too much and dispose of their garbage right into our forests.

Therefore, our forests may no longer be natural conservation areas, but may turn into garbage dumps sooner or later.

Less space for other crucial public infrastructure

Since afforestation also implies the use of large areas of land, it often leads to a state where there is less space left for important public infrastructure projects like highways.

This is especially true nearby big cities where the space is quite confined.

Thus, those important public infrastructure projects may not be possible if reforestation projects are prioritized.

Planting trees may be costly

Since the planting of trees involves a high level of manual work and manpower, those reforestation projects can also be quite costly.

Therefore, large amounts of money that come from donations have to be used.

In turn, this money cannot be used for other important social development projects anymore.

Hence, reforestation may also be considered to be problematic in the discussion regarding how the money from donations should be used in the most efficient manner.

Pests may be a problem

Although forests provide a habitat for many animals and plants, they are also a living space for harmful pests like the bark beetle.

Therefore, in order to control those pests, it is crucial to employ people with significant knowledge in forestry.

However, in some regions, it will be rather hard to find those people and therefore, reforestation projects may actually fail since those forests will be destroyed by pests sooner or later.

Scarcity may increase property prices and rents for the general public

Since reforestation also implies the use of large areas of land, there will be less space for housing purposes left and therefore, property prices as well as rents will likely increase.

In turn, people have to spend a higher fraction of their income for rent and may not have enough money left for other crucial things in their daily life.

Forests require proper maintenance

Reforestation or afforestation is only the first step in order to sustain and maintain a sufficient number of trees on our planet.

In the next step, someone has to take care of the proper maintenance of those forests.

This includes pest control, but also plenty of additional work since sometimes, trees have to be cut down due to various reasons and if forests are not controlled and treated properly, they may soon become rather useless and may even die off in the long run.

Also ecotourism causes some problems

While ecotourism has become quite popular over the past years and it can be considered to be a good thing overall, there are also some problems related to it.

For instance, while many people claim that they want to protect our environment and minimize their ecological footprint, many of them still dispose of their trash in nearby forests.

Thus, if people just pretend but do not actually care about protecting our nature, chances are that ecotourism is rather harmful than beneficial for our forests and therefore, reforestation may not be able to unfold all its potential benefits.

Top 10 Reforestation Pros & Cons – Summary List

Reforestation ProsReforestation Cons
Mitigation of global warmingLess space for farming
Reduction of the desertification problemLess space for housing
Lower risk for landslidesIncreasing rents
Employment opportunitiesWildfires
Reforestation as business modelLittering in forests
Afforestation can lead to social cohesionPests may spread
Planting trees is a fun activityMaintenance of forests is costly
Air quality improvementLocal poverty may increase
Restoration of natural habitatsLess space for important infrastructure
Improvements in overall quality of lifePlanting trees can be costly


As we can see from the previous argumentation, there are many pros and cons related to reforestation and afforestation.

However, nobody can deny that we need a sufficient number of trees on our planet to preserve the ecological balance and to ensure a livable future for the next generations.

Thus, in my opinion, the pros outweigh the cons of afforestation and trees should be planted in a reasonable manner in order to improve the quality of life of as many people as possible.






About the author

My name is Andreas and my mission is to educate people of all ages about our environmental problems and how everyone can make a contribution to mitigate these issues.

As I went to university and got my Master’s degree in Economics, I did plenty of research in the field of Development Economics.

After finishing university, I traveled around the world. From this time on, I wanted to make a contribution to ensure a livable future for the next generations in every part of our beautiful planet.

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